No, but we ask that any work that includes the measure also includes the appropriate citation:
Anyone can use the measure provided they have read the accompanying manual carefully.
About 5 minutes, if administered in the participant’s native language and if the participant does not have literacy/comprehension difficulties.
Sum the scores of respondents. See the section in the manual on scoring for more information.
Yes, in the original measure there are 5. See the section in the manual on scoring for more information.
We do not currently recommend cut-off/thresholds for the measure.
Grossman et al., (2020) determined that the overall scale had an alpha of .76.
Yes, we encourage this. However, you should describe and justify any changes you make and note that any modifications challenge the validity of the measure and you should be prepared to investigate this yourself. Please feel free to get in touch with us about this if you would like support.
At present, the measure is only available in a few languages (listed in our Downloads). You are welcome to translate the measure and if you do, please send us a copy so we can share this with others. We recommend any translations undergo back-translation to ensure accuracy. See the translation section above for further information.
We developed the measure with participants that were 18-30. Therefore, the measure is good to use with this group. If you plan to use the measure with older or younger individuals, please get in touch with us.
Our staff are committed to offering tools and services for research and evaluation. Although the measure will always be available to researchers at no cost, we are no longer able to offer consultation for free. Due to the high volume of requests, any further help will be offered for a fee in order to recover the cost of staff time. To have our staff consult on one of your projects, please fill out the form on this page.