How to Use

Using the BRAVE

The BRAVE is a brief self-report measure that can be typically completed in under 5 minutes.

Responses to items are made on a five-point Likert scale, from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Scores are calculated by summing the point values of the responses from a participant. Higher scores indicate greater levels of characteristics associated with resilience to violent extremism.

In addition to an overall score, five subscale scores can also be calculated:

  • •  cultural identity and connectedness,
  • •  bridging capital,
  • •  linking capital,
  •   violence-related behaviours,
  • •  and violent-related beliefs.

For further information on administration and scoring, please refer to the manual for the measure which can be accessed through this site.

Contextualising the measure

Before implementing the BRAVE, we strongly advise that you consider how the measure can be adapted to your particular context.

For example, we recommend holding meetings with selected members of the community in which the research is being conducted. A Local Advisory Committee (LAC) can provide valuable input, such as suggestions on contextually relevant ways of conducting the study, ensuring that items are phrased in a way that makes sense to participants, and helping to develop additional site-specific items to add to the BRAVE.

Members of a LAC can also comment on findings and help ensure that interpretations of the data are made meaningful in terms of local context. It works well to consult with a group of about five local key informants who have something important to say about the people in their community. The group could include youth, professionals, service providers and/or elders.

Sessions with your LAC can provide useful directions to assist with the implementation and interpretation of the BRAVE, but can also provide qualitative data on the topic of resilience to violent extremism in your research setting.

We have provided an in-depth guide to contextualising the measure in the manual. Please use the contact details provided to get in touch.

Still have questions? Visit our FAQ Page to find answers

Psychometric properties

The study by Grossman et al (2020) determined that the BRAVE has good content validity (face validity and construct validity), convergent validity, and internal reliability (α) = .76. For more information on the psychometric properties of the measure, please see the manual.